Irene Bloemraad

Irene Bloemraad's picture
Class of 1951 Professor
Thomas Garden Barnes Chair of Canadian Studies & Director of the Berkeley Interdisciplinary Migration Initiative
Research Interests: 
Immigration, political sociology, race & ethnicity, social movements, nationalism, research methods, Canada
442 Barrows
Curriculum Vitae: 

Irene Bloemraad (Ph.D. Harvard; M.A. McGill) is the Class of 1951 Professor of Sociology and the Thomas Garden Barnes Chair of Canadian Studies at Berkeley. She is also the founding Director of the Berkeley Interdisciplinary Migration Initiative, and holds the position of Senior Fellow with the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.  In 2014-15, she served as a member of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences committee reporting on the integration of immigrants into American society.


I study how immigrants become incorporated into political bodies and the consequences of their presence on politics and understandings of membership. My research stands at the intersection of immigration studies and political sociology, with a strong interdisciplinary (and international) scope. You can find links to my books and articles at the bottom of this page. My research falls into four broad areas:

(1)  Citizenship & Multiculturalism – How do immigrants’ gain formal political membership?  My book, Becoming a Citizen, compares immigrants’ acquisition of citizenship and political participation in the United States and Canada. I show how settlement assistance and an official policy of multiculturalism facilitate immigrant political incorporation more in Canada than in the United States.  In the context of current U.S. immigration debates, my work suggests that immigration policy must focus not just on border control and entry, but also on integration and settlement policies. For a video profile of some of this research, see here or here. In 2017, I worked with three colleagues to assemble the Oxford Handbook of Citizenship, a state-of-the-field overview of scholarship on citizenship.

(2) Immigrant Community Organizations – What role do community organizations play in facilitating immigrants’ political and civic visibility and influence?  With Karthick Ramakrishnan (UCR) and Shannon Gleeson (Cornell), I've developed the idea of civic stratification, conceptualizing and documenting how immigrnaats face civic inequality and invisibility in the public sphere. Work in this area is featured in our co-edited book, Civic Hopes and Political Realities, as well as academic articles in journals such as the American Journal Sociology and Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. (See links below.) 

(3) Political Socialization in Mixed-Status Families – What effect does parents’ legal status have on US-born children’s civic and political incorporation? For this project, funded by the Russell Sage Foundation, my research team interviewed almost 200 Mexican-, Vietnamese- and Chinese-origin youth and their immigrant parents living in the Bay Area.  Early results published in American Behavioral Scientist argue that political socialization, traditionally viewed as a parent-child dynamic, can also occur from children to parents.  More recently, in a series of articles published in journals such as Studies in Law, Society and Politics and the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, I examine the importance of US birth, economic condition, ethno-racial background and ideas about diversity for one's sense of membership. This work carries important implications for political debates challenging 14th Amendment birthright citizenship.

(4) Diversity & Democracy – What are the implications of a more diverse population for democracy, civic life and public policies? What leads those in the native-born majority population to accept immigration or reject immigrant newcomers? In an article with Christel Kesler in the Canadian Journal of Political Science, we find that national institutions and policy environments mediate the relationship between diversity and social trust, civic engagement and political participation; diversity policies could enhance -- rather than depress -- civic activism in the right policy context.  In articles that appeared in Perspectives on Politics and International Migration Review, Matthew Wright and I show that despite politicians' backlash against multiculturalism, immigrants in countries with more diversity policies show similar or higher political trust, engagement and attachment than those living in countries with more assimilatory policies.  Multiculturalism might be good for democracy. In complementary research with colleagues Kim Voss and Fabiana Silva, we find that in making the case for immigrants to those in the majority, claims based on rights -- be they human or civil rights -- do not resonate much; rather, and perhaps surprisingly, appeals to American values or family unity appear to shift registered California voters to more inclusive notions of membership. This is an on-going project. Early results published in Social Forces. A short video discussing results from a second paper can be viewed here.

My view on the intersection of immigration and politics is capacious. It includes attention to citizenship, voting and winning elected office; the establishment and maintenance of non-profit civic infrastructures, public opinion, policy and legislation, as well as social movement activism.  Combining my interests in immigration and social movements, my colleague Kim Voss and I published an edited volume on the massive immigration rights protests of 2006, Rallying for Immigrant Rights.  I have also write on comparative research methods, which flows in part from my undergraduate and graduate teaching of research methods.

Teaching - Excellence and in research and teaching should go hand-in-hand.  In 2013, I was award the American Cultures Innovation in Teaching prize, in 2012, I was honored with the campus’s Distinguished Teaching Award in Social Sciences, and in 2008 I received the Sarlo Distinguished Mentoring Award for my work with graduate students.  Beyond traditional undergraduate and graduate classes on immigration and research methods, I've also developed community service classes through the American Cultures Engaged Scholarship program. These combine academic learning with community internships in nonprofit organizations such the East Oakland Youth Development Center and Centro Legal de la Raza.  Some of this work with EOYDC is highlighted here.

Beyond academia - My interest in immigration comes from personal experience: I was born in Europe, moved to Canada as a young girl, and migrated to the United States in my early 20s. But immigration is also a vital issue to the state of California -- more than one in four state residents was born outside the United States -- and to many countries in the world. Over the last decade, I have worked to broaden and deepen immigration studies at Berkeley. (See the Berkeley NewsCenter article on some of these efforts, and students doing work in this area, here.) Most recently, I have spearheaded a collaborative effort with Berkeley colleagues to launch the Berkeley Interdisciplinary Migration Intiative. I have also developed immigration seminars at the graduate and undergraduate levels and I run an informal immigration workshop for those researching immigrant-related topics. Education not only occurs on campus. I try to reach out beyond academia.  I've written policy briefs and given presentations to elected officials and high-level government officials, and I regularly give public talks, from students in grade 4 classrooms to seniors in retirement residences.


Representative Publications: 


 Shachar, A., Bauböck, R., Bloemraad, I., Vink, M. (Eds.) 2017. Oxford Handbook of Citizenship. Oxford University Press.

 2011 Voss, K., Bloemraad, I.  (Eds.)   Rallying for Immigrant Rights.  Berkeley: University of California Press.

 2008 Ramakrishnan, S.K., Bloemraad, I.  (Eds.)  Civic Hopes and Political Realities: Immigrants, Community Organizations, and Political Engagement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Press.

 2006 Bloemraad, I. .  Becoming a Citizen: Incorporating Immigrants and Refugees in the United States and Canada. University of California Press.


Selected Articles and Chapters (click title for .pdf)

**NEW** Bloemraad, I., Voss, K. 2019.“Movement or Moment? Lessons from the pro-immigrant movement in the United States and contemporary challenges.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. On-line advance publication:

**NEW** Voss, K., Silva, F., Bloemraad, I. 2019. “The Limits of Rights: Claims-making on Behalf of Immigrants.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. On-line advance publication:

**NEW** Bloemraad, I., Kymlicka, W., Lamont, M., Son Hing, L.S. 2019. “Membership Without Social Citizenship? Deservingness & Redistribution as Grounds for Equality.” Daedalus148(3): 73-104.

Bloemraad, I. 2018. “Theorizing Citizenship as Claims-Making.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 44(1): 4-26.

Bloemraad, I., Sheares, A. 2017. “Understanding Membership in a World of Global Migration: (How) Does Citizenship Matter?International Migration Review 51(4): 823-867.

Warikoo, N., Bloemraad, I.  2017. “Economic Americanness and Defensive Inclusion: Social Location and Young Citizens’ Conceptions of National Identity.”  Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. (on-line advanced publication)

de Graauw, E., Bloemraad, I. 2017. Working Together : Building Successful Policy and Program Partnerships for Immigrant IntegrationJournal on Migration and Human Security 5(1): 105-123.

Bloemraad, I., Sarabia, H., Fillingim, A. 2016. “Staying out of Trouble” and Doing what is “Right:” Citizenship Acts, Citizenship Ideals and the Effects of Legal Status on Second-Generation YouthAmerican Behavioral Scientist 60(13) 1534–1552.

Bloemraad, I., Terriquez, V. (in-press, 2016)  Cultures of Engagement: The Organizational Foundations of Advancing Health in Low-Income Communities of Color.  Social Science and Medicine

Bloemraad, I., Silva, F., Voss, K. 2016. Rights, Economics or Family? Frame Resonance, Political Ideology and the Immigrant Rights Movement.  Social Forces  94(4): 1647-1674

Hamlin, R., Bloemraad, I., de Graauw, E. 2016. Political Stories: Media Narratives of Political Participation by Asian Immigrants in the United States and Canada.  Politics, Groups and Identities. 4(3): 425-443

Bloemraad, I.  2015. “Re-imagining the Nation in a World of Migration: Legitimacy, Political Claims-making and Membership in Comparative Perspective.”  Pp. 59-80 in Fear and Anxiety over National Identity, edited by Nancy Foner and Patrick Simon. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Press.

Fox, C., Bloemraad, I.  2015.  “White by Law, Not in Practice: Explaining the Gulf in Citizenship Acquisition between Mexican and European Immigrants, 1930.” Social Forces 94(1): 181-207. 

Bloemraad, I.  2015.  Theorizing and Analyzing Citizenship in Multicultural Societies.  The Sociological Quarterly 56(4): 591-606 .

Bloemraad, I., de Graauw, E., Hamlin, R. 2015. Immigrants in the Media: Civic Visibility in the United States and CanadaJournal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 41(6): 874-896.

Bloemraad, I., Wright, M. 2014. “Utter Failure” or Unity out of Diversity?  Debating and Evaluating Policies of MulticulturalismInternational Migration Review 48(S1): S292-S334.

deGraauw, E., Gleeson, S., Bloemraad, I.  2013.  Funding Immigrant Organizations: Suburban Free-riding and Local Civic Presence. American Journal of Sociology 119(1): 75-130.

Bloemraad, I., Provine, D.M. 2013. Immigrants and Civil Rights in Cross-National Perspective: Lessons from North AmericaJournal of Comparative Migration Studies 1(1): 45-68.

Chung, A., Bloemraad, I., Tejada, K. 2013. Reinventing an Authentic “Ethnic” Politics: Ideology and Organizational Change in Koreatown and Field’s Corner. Ethnicities. 13(6): 838–862.

Bloemraad, I.  2013.  Accessing the Corridors of Power: Puzzles and Pathways to Understanding Minority Representation. West European Politics 36(3): 652-670. 

Fox, C., Bloemraad, I., Kesler, C. 2013.  “Immigration, Political Participation and Redistributive Social Policy.” Pp. 381-420 in Immigration and Poverty, edited by David Card and Steven Raphael.  New York: Russell Sage Foundation Press.

Bloemraad, I., Schönwälder, K.  2013.  Immigrant and Ethnic: Minority Representation in Europe: Conceptual Challenges and Theoretical ApproachesWest European Politics 36(3): 564-579.   

Bloemraad, I. 2013.  Being American / Becoming American: Birthright Citizenship and Immigrants’ Membership in the United StatesStudies in Law, Politics and Society 60: 55-84.

Bloemraad, I.  2013.  The Promise and Pitfalls of Comparative Research Design in the Study of Migration. Migration Studies 1(1): 27-46.

Bloemraad, I. 2013. “The Great Concern of Government:” Public Policy as Material and Symbolic Resources.  Pp. 195-208 in Outsiders no More? Models of Immigrant Political Incorporation, edited by Jennifer Hochschild, Jacqueline Chattopadhyay, Claudine Gay and Michael Jones-Correa.  New York: Oxford University Press

Wright, M., Bloemraad, I.  2012.  Is There a Trade-off  Between Multiculturalism and Socio-Political Integration? Policy Regimes and Immigrant Incorporation in Comparative Perspective.”  Perspectives on Politics 10(1): 77-95.  Errata and corrections to figures here.

  • Best Article Award, Migration and Citizenship Section, American Political Science Association

Gleeson, S., Bloemraad I.  2012. Assessing the Scope of Immigrant Organizations: Official Undercounts and Actual UnderrepresentationNonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly

Bloemraad, I., Gleeson, S. 2012.  “Making the Case for Organizational Presence: Civic Inclusion, Access to Resources, and Formal Community Organizations.” Pp. 109-134 in Remaking Urban Citizenship: Organizations, Institutions, and the Right to the City, edited by Michael Peter Smith and Michael McQuarrie.  New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers

Bloemraad, I. 2012.  What the Textbooks Don’t Tell You: Moving from a Research Puzzle to Published Findings.  Pp. 502-520 in Handbook of Research Methods in Migration, edited by Carlos Vargas-Silva. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

2010 Kesler, C., Bloemraad, I. Does Immigration Erode Social Capital?  The Conditional Effects of Immigration-Generated Diversity on Trust, Membership, and Participation across 19 Countries, 1981-2000.  Canadian Journal of Political Science 43(2): 319-347

2008 Bloemraad, I., Trost, C. . It’s a Family Affair: Inter-generational Mobilization in the Spring 2006 ProtestsAmerican Behavioral Scientist 52(4): 507-532.

2008 Bloemraad, I. Korteweg, A., Yurdakul, G. . Citizenship and Immigration: Multiculturalism, Assimilation, and Challenges to the Nation-StateAnnual Review of Sociology 34: 8.1-8.27.

2008 Ramakrishnan, S.K., Bloemraad, I. .  Introduction: Civic and Political Inequalities and “Making Organizations Count: Case Studies in California.” In Civic Hopes and Political Realities: Immigrants, Community Organizations, and Political Engagement, S. Karthick Ramakrishnan and Irene Bloemraad, eds. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Press.

2007 Bloemraad, I. . Unity in Diversity?  Bridging Models of Multiculturalism and Immigrant Integration.  DuBois Review: Social Science Research on Race 4(2): 317-336.

2006 Bloemraad, I. .  Becoming a Citizen in the United States and Canada: Structured Mobilization and Immigrant Political Incorporation. Social Forces 85(2): 667-695.

2006 Bloemraad, I. . Citizenship Lessons from the Past: The Contours of Immigrant Naturalization in the Early Twentieth Century. Social Science Quarterly 87(5): 927-953.

2006 Bloemraad, I, Ueda, R. .  Naturalization and Nationality.  Pp. 36-57 in Companion to American Immigration, edited by Reed Ueda.  Oxford: Blackwell.

2005 Bloemraad, I. .  The Limits of de Tocqueville: How Government Facilitates Organizational Capacity in Newcomer Communities. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31(5): 865-887.

2004 Bloemraad, I. Who Claims Dual Citizenship? The Limits of Postnationalism, the Possibilities of Transnationalism, and the Persistence of Traditionalism. International Migration Review 38(2): 389-426.

2001 Bloemraad, I. . Outsiders and Insiders: Collective Identity and Collective Action in the Quebec Independence Movement, 1995Research in Political Sociology (The Politics of Social Inequality) Vol. 9: 271-305.  Amsterdam: Elsevier.