Michael Menefee is PhD student in the Department of Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley. He is a UC Berkeley Chancellor’s Fellow and National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellow. Michael’s research interests include punishment and incarceration, poverty, education, stratification and inequality, and applied econometrics. Michael is currently studying the collateral consequences of jail incarceration and probation supervision. He is also interested in neighborhood violence and the deleterious consequences of exposure to violence.